Framington Heart Timeline


Framingham Heart Study begins


Findings on progression rheumatic heart disease reported


High blood pressure and high cholesterol levels shown to increase likelihood of heart disease


Some heart attacks discovered to be “silent” (causing no pain)


Cigarette smoking found to increase the risk of heart disease


The term “risk factor” introduced


Cholesterol level, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram abnormalities found to increase the risk of heart disease


Physical activity found to reduce the risk of heart disease and obesity to increase the risk of heart disease


High blood pressure found to increase the risk of stroke


Atrial fibrillation increases stroke risk 5-fold


Menopause found to increase the risk of heart disease


Psychosocial factors found to affect heart disease


High levels of HDL cholesterol found to reduce risk of death


Enlarged left ventricle (one of two lower chambers of the heart) shown to increase the risk of stroke


Progression from hypertension to heart failure described


Framingham Heart Study researchers identify that atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality


Development of simple coronary disease prediction algorithm involving risk factor categories to allow physicians to predict multivariate coronary heart disease risk in patients without overt CHDS


Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is one in two for men and one in three for women


High-normal blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease


Lifetime risk of developing high blood pressure in middle-aged adults is 9 in 10


Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure


Serum aldosterone levels predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals


Lifetime risk of becoming overweight exceeds 70 percent, that for obesity approximates 1 in 2


The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health announces a new genome-wide association study at the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) in collaboration with Boston University School of Medicine to be known as the SHARe project (SNP Health Association Resource)


Based on evaluation of a densely interconnected social network of 12,067 people assessed as part of the Framingham Heart Study, network phenomena appear to be relevant to the biologic and behavioral trait of obesity, and obesity appears to spread through social ties


Based on analysis of a social network of 12,067 people participating in the Framingham Heart Study, researchers discover that social networks exert key influences on decision to quit smoking


Discovery by Framingham Heart Study and publication of four risk factors that raise probability of developing precursor of heart failure; new 30-year risk estimates developed for serious cardiac events


Framingham Heart Study cited by the American Heart Association among the top 10 cardiovascular research achievements of 2009, “Genome-wide Association Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension: Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure”


A new genetic variant associated with increased susceptibility for atrial fibrillation, a prominent risk factor for stroke and heart failure, is reported in two studies based on data from the Framingham Heart Study


Framingham Heart Study researchers find parental dementia may lead to poor memory in middle-aged adults


Framingham Heart Study researchers find high leptin levels may protect against Alzheimer’s disease and dementia


Framingham Heart Study researchers contribute to discovering hundreds of new genes underlying major heart disease risk factors—body mass index, blood cholesterol, cigarette smoking, blood pressure and glucose/diabetes


Sleep apnea tied to increased risk of stroke


Framingham Heart Study researchers identify additional genes that may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease


Framingham Heart Study finds fat around the abdomen associated with smaller, older brains in middle-aged adults


Framingham Heart Study finds genes link puberty timing and body fat in women


Having first-degree relative with atrial fibrillation associated with increased risk for this disorder


First definitive evidence that occurrence of stroke by age 65 years in a parent increased risk of stroke in offspring by 3-fold


Several exciting genome projects are underway. Large parts of the sequence of DNA for hundreds of Framingham participants are being analyzed in 2011 in two large studies, the NHLBI Large-Scale DNA Sequencing Project and the U.S. Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology


Framingham researchers find associations between new metabolites (including amino acids glutamate and glutamine) and adverse metabolic profiles that predispose to risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, or stroke


Framingham researchers find that higher vascular stiffness is a precursor, instead of the result of hypertension in middle-aged adults


Framingham researchers identify new biomarkers reflecting myocardial and vascular stress that predict future risk of developing cardiovascular events in low to intermediate risk individuals


New genetic loci associated with blood lipid levels (Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) are reported in a study based on data from Framingham Heart Study


Genetic variant of MUC5B may identify people at a high risk of developing interstitial lung abnormalities and pulmonary fibrosis in a study based on Framingham Heart Study data


New associations found between certain peripheral blood gene expression patterns and risk of developing coronary heart disease, based on Framingham Heart Study data


Genetic variation in the gene LPA is associated with aortic-valve calcification, a risk factor for developing aortic-valve disease, based in part on Framingham Heart Study data


Report highlights the association between age of adult menarche and adult BMI and select genetic variants


Discovery of genetic variants that may influence brain structure, which may help elucidate the genetic mechanisms contributing to neurodegenerative disease


Over three decades, the incidence rate of dementia has declined in Framingham Heart Study participants, especially in those with a high school diploma


A game-based intervention that increased social incentives led to increased physical activity among Framingham Heart study participants


Presence of three major anatomic components of risk on CT imaging, i.e., coronary calcification, excess adiposity, and greater muscle fat, across multiple organs are associated with greater levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors and overall mortality in Framingham Heart Study participants


Framingham Heart Study researchers find that former smokers who quit smoking 25 or more years ago still have three times as much risk of developing lung cancer compared to people who have never smoked